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Language Disorders

Receptive Language

  • Difficulty understanding words, their meanings and how they relate to each other.
  • Difficulty understanding complex sentences and multiple-step directions.
  • Difficulty understanding that grammatical markers have meaning: such as marking past tense with an -ed (e.g. “jumped”) or putting an -s on the end of a word to make it plural (e.g. “books”)

Expressive Language

  • Difficulty finding the right words to express thoughts or ideas.
  • Difficulty defining words or finding other words with similar or different meanings.
  • Very simple sentence structure: difficulty talking in complex sentences with a variety of sentence structures and word combinations)
  • Grammatical errors while talking


  • “Awkward” Communication such as: difficulty maintaining conversations, inappropriate body language, interpreting success of conversation and/or understanding the perspective of another person.

Speech Disorders

Some individuals are hard to understand because they have sound distortions, substitutions, or leave off sounds all together. These are called Speech Disorders. Depending on the speech patterns it will be further diagnosed as an Articulation Disorder or a Phonological Processing Disorder. The two terms will affect how the speech therapist addresses treatment.

Articulation Development

It is typical for young children to have a few speech sound errors. Here’s a quick guide to when kids should have mastered each sound.

Age when most children have mastered the sound:
3 years: m, n, p, b, h, w
4 years: k, g, “y”, “ing”, t, d, f
5 years: f, l, v
6 years: “sh”, “ch”, “dz” (J), “th” voiced (that), “th” voiceless (thigh)
7 years: r, s, z

*If your child is not saying these sounds by the age listed please refer them for a speech evaluation.